Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), Glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl), Green-lipped mussel, Chondroitin sulphate, Vitamin C, Curcumin, Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans, Manganese sulphate, Hyaluronic acid, Vitamin E.
Methylsulfonylmethane (Amiel D. et al, Ezaki J. et al)
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a well-studied joint supplement ingredient due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immune modulating effects in both humans and animals. Apart from reducing joint pain and swelling, MSM has been shown to have cartilage protective effects in animals, while enhancing the effects of glucosamine and chondroitin.
Glucosamine HCl, Chondroitin Sulphate (Gupta RC et al, D’Altilio M et al)
Glucosamine HCl and chondroitin sulphate are the building blocks of proteoglycans, which forms the joint cartilage matrix. Using both compounds together provide pain relief to arthritic pets and has a positive synergistic effect for maintaining cartilage health and elasticity. Chondroitin sulphate is also a key building blocks in many connective tissues such as bones and tendons.
Manganese Sulphate (Johnson KA et al)
Manganese is an essential mineral for dogs and cats. It is an important cofactor of several enzymes and provides catalytic effects in the biosynthesis of cartilage, bones and joint fluids. Manganese is also required for energy production and metabolism.
Hyaluronic Acid (Simón M et al, Venable RO et al, Kuroki K et al)
Hyaluronic acid is an important cartilage component and provides the viscoelastic and lubricating properties of joint fluid. Insufficient hyaluronic acid reduces the shock absorption and friction reduction properties of joint fluids during movements.
Green-lipped Mussels (Pascale R et al, Tiffany LB et al, Charles TE et al)
Green-lipped mussels are naturally rich in multiple key joint-supportive ingredients such as chondroitin sulphates, omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA), vitamins E and C, zinc, copper and manganese. In addition, a unique fatty acid called eicosatetraenoic acid provides potent cartilage protective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while being free from adverse side effects seen with many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Curcumin (Colitti M et al)
Curcumin, a naturally-derived diarylheptanoid compound from turmeric has well-studied anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antineoplastic, and antiseptic properties. By downregulating inflammatory mediators, curcumin supports the reduction of inflammatory response in arthritic joints.
Vitamins C and E (Rhouma M et al, Chin K et al, Peregoy J et al)
Vitamins C and E are antioxidants that neutralise free radicals to maximize joint mobility. Vitamin E has been shown to reduce cartilage degeneration, inflammatory joint markers and also joint pain. Vitamin C is known to be an electron donor in the synthesis of type II collagen as well a sulfate carrier for proteoglycans synthesis.
Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (Beynen AC et al, Stuyven E et al)
β-1,3/1,6-glucans counteracts inflammatory disorders by modulating the immune responses through down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines. This helps in reducing stiffness, lameness and pain experienced by pet patients with osteoarthritis.